Francis Newton Souza (Indian 1924–2002) was a founding member of the Progressive Artists’ Group in Bombay, and a leading member of the Indian avant-garde. Born in Portuguese-controlled Goa, Souza moved to London after the Indian Independence to cement his international reputation as an artist, and became one of the first post-Independence Indian painters to gain recognition in the West. His work is characterized by Expressionist and Art Brut influences, and feature thick swaths of luminous color, which give his paintings an animated quality. In 1967, Souza moved to New York, where he remained living and working until he moved back to India shortly before his death. Souza is known for his writings as well, and published several books during his lifetime. Souza’s work is in many important museum collections, including The British Museum, The Tate Gallery, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. copyright representative for the Karel Appel Foundation is the Artists Rights Society.